Larson has discussed the development of the Reciprocal System of Physical Theory to a great extent in his two works, Nothing But Motion1 and The Universe of Motion,2 the latter work especially dealing with the astronomical applications. Stars are the basic building blocks of the large-scale universe. As such, the knowledge of their internal constitution and dynamics constitutes an important step in the understanding of the macroscopic universe. Larson developed the general structure and the details of evolution of the stars of various types.2 The detailed study of their internal structure has not yet been carried out in the context of the Reciprocal System. Therefore, such a study was taken up as an initial attempt to fill this gap and some of the results obtained are reported herein.
In Part I, we will discuss the general properties of matter at very high temperatures, applying the principles and concepts developed by Larson in his works cited. Since the sun is the only star about which a wealth of observational information is available in great detail, an attempt is made to explain some of the solar phenomena—phenomena so well known but whose nature is by no means clearly understood by the scientists—utilizing the conclusions reached in Part I. This is reported in Part II. It is hoped that these will be found interesting to the researchers of the Reciprocal System and stimulate further investigations.
According to the Reciprocal System, the energy generation in the stars is by the atomic disintegration process.3 Larson shows how the operation of this source at the central regions of the stars gives rise to a fluctuating energy output, its periodicity showing up even in the case of the stable stars, though not as conspicuously as in the case of the intrinsic variables. Thus, he attributes the 11-year periodicity of the sun to this fluctuation of the internal energy generation.4
The basic scalar motion that constitutes the material atoms is a speed displacement in time. Both the thermal motion and the electric charge of the atoms are displacements in space. At a large enough temperature, called the thermal destructive limit, the combined space displacement due to the thermal motion and the positive electric ionization is sufficient to neutralize one of the rotational time displacement units constituting the atom and reduce it to the linear status (radiation). Preliminary calculations indicate that the thermal limit of the elements is greater than two natural units of temperature.5 Accordingly, the material in the central region of a star has to be at temperatures beyond the unit level, and this gives rise to significant results as explained below.
Larson refers to the speeds in the range of one to two natural units as the intermediate speeds, and those above two units as the ultra high speeds. In a similar manner, we will refer to the temperatures greater than one natural unit, but less than two natural units, as intermediate temperatures, and those beyond as ultra high temperatures. In addition, we will call the temperatures below the unit level as the low temperatures. This connotation of “low” will be used throughout our discussion, and must be so remembered.
In the intermediate range, the motion is in time instead of space. However, where the net total motion is still in space, the motion due to the intermediate speed component will be in the space equivalent of time, that is, in equivalent space.6 As such, the effects of the thermal motion when the temperature is in the intermediate speed range, are in equivalent space, rather than in the space of the conventional reference system. An important, direct consequence is that this thermal motion would be two-dimensional, as is all motion in equivalent space.7
In view of the fact that both the thermal motion, and the motion constituting the positive electric charge, are of the same type—namely, one-dimensional vibratory space displacements (except that the former is a linear vibration, and the latter is a rotational vibration), thermal motion readily engenders electric ionization when present in sufficient intensity. This thermal ionization, of course, is a known phenomenon.
In a similar manner, the thermal motion in the intermediate range, being of a two-dimensional linear vibratory space displacement, readily produces on the basic units of matter present, a two-dimensional rotational vibration, with space displacement. We can immediately recognize that the latter, namely the two-dimensional rotational vibration with space displacement, is nothing but the magnetic charge! Thus, throughout the stellar interiors, where the thermal motion is above the unit level, magnetic fields of intensity proportional to the strength of the thermal motions are always generated.
Instead of relegating the role of the magnetic fields as minor, we now find that the presence and configuration of these thermally generated magnetic fields largely determine the structure and dynamics of the stellar phenomena. Since the interiors of all stars have to be at temperatures above the unit value if energy generation by thermal destruction is to take place at all, intense magnetic fields must invariably be present in all of them. This does not, however, mean that these fields reach up to the stellar surface in their full intensity. Only few field lines seem to penetrate through the outer bulk of material that is at lower (that is, less than the unit) temperature, as we will see later. While fields as strong as 10,000 gauss might be generated at the core, the surface field may be of the order of tens of gauss to a fraction of a gauss.
We will now summarize some important conclusions reached by Larson, and add our own discussion to their further implications concerning the states of matter and radiation at the upper range speeds.
"… thermal radiation originates from linear motion of the small constituents of the material aggregates in the dimension of the spatial reference system. The effective magnitude of this motion is measured as temperature.
“Inasmuch as motion at intermediate speeds is in the same scalar dimension as the motion at speeds below unity, the vibrational motion that produces the thermal radiation continues into the upper speed ranges. But because of the reversal at the unit speed level, the temperature gradient in the intermediate region is inverse; that is, the maximum intensity of the thermal vibration, and the resulting radiation, is at the unit speed level, and it decreases in both directions.”8
In the intermediate region, an increase in temperature (equivalent to a decrease in inverse temperature) decreases the thermal radiation.
As a consequence of this, if we try to identify a thermal source at the upper end of the intermediate temperature range by observing the intensity of its radiation, it would appear to be at a low temperature, of an order that is not beyond the ken of terrestrial experience.
A further fact of significance is that, “…all radiation from objects with upper range speeds… is polarized as emitted. Where a lower polarization is observed, this is due to depolarizing effects during travel of the radiation. A three-dimensional distribution of radiation is impossible in a two-dimensional region.”9
“Furthermore, the radiating units of matter are confined within one unit of time, at the upper end of the intermediate temperature range (the lowest inverse temperatures), just as they are confined within one unit of space at the lower end of the normal temperature range.”10 “The physical state of this material is the temporal equivalent of the solid state: a condition in which the atoms occupy fixed positions in three-dimensional time, and the emission is modified in the same manner as in the solid state.”9 This radiation has a continuous spectrum.
Corresponding to the three states of matter in the low temperature range—solid, liquid, and gaseous—there ought to be three more states in the intermediate temperature range, which we may call the inverse gas, the inverse liquid, and the inverse solid, in that order of increasing temperature (decreasing inverse temperature).
In order to see how the effects of motion in the space region (occurring at the far end of the intermediate speed range) manifest themselves to observation in the time-space region (the conventional three-dimensional, spatial reference system), we will first consider how the effects of motion in the time region are known to manifest in the time-space region, and then draw an analogy. We can tabulate:
|Motion Originating||Effects as manifested in the conventional reference frame|
In the time
|(i) discontinuous (or limited in extent) in the space of the reference system|
|(ii) continuous in the time of the reference system|
In the space
|(iii) discontinuous (or limited in extent) in the time of the reference system|
|(iv) continuous in the space of the reference system|
An example of the time region phenomena is the crystal or grain of the solid state—which is of limited spatial extent, but exists continually in time. In the case of the space region phenomena, in view of item No. (iii) tabulated above, the spatial aggregations of the atoms concerned do not persist continually: they keep forming and dissolving into fresh, new aggregates.
The lifetimes of these space region aggregates, that is, the times elapsed before they dissolve to give place to new aggregates, depends upon the rate at which the heat transfer is taking place. In the case of solidification from liquid to solid state, a high heat transfer rate produces smaller grain size (more number of grains per unit of space). In the case of the inverse states we are considering, this should result in less number of “grains” per unit of time. This means that the lifetimes are longer with higher heat transfer rates.
The motion in time has no direction in space, and does not manifest as a movement of individual atoms, as such, in space. However, there are some observable effects on aggregates of atoms. For instance, the scalar direction of thermal motion is always outward. The expansion in time resulting from the intermediate temperature shows up as a contraction in equivalent space. Or conversely, if matter at the upper temperature ranges is cooling to the low temperature region, we would expect it to expand. We will have occasion to refer to this phenomenon in the context of sunspots, later.
We have seen how the intermediate range temperatures give rise to three more states of matter—the inverse states, as we are calling them—in addition to the three known states pertaining to the low temperature range. The entry of the temperature into the ultra high range, beyond the two-unit limit, results in a yet another, seventh, state of matter.
The third unit of motion is already beyond the two-unit limit of the dimension of scalar motion that is coincident with the dimension of the conventional spatial reference system. It pertains to a second scalar dimension incapable of representation in the conventional reference system.
“…some of the change of position due to the unobservable ultra high speeds is represented in the reference system in an indirect manner… the outward motion of the ultra high speed… is applied to overcoming the inward gravitational motion…. Inasmuch as that gravitational motion has altered the position (in the reference system) of the matter…, elimination of the gravitational motion results in a movement of this matter back to the spatial position that it would have occupied if the gravitational motion had not taken place. Since it reverses a motion in the reference system, this elimination of the gravitational change of position is observable.”11
“Thus, even though the speeds of the particles… are in the ultra high range, the observable thermal effect is in the low speed range, and the radiation that is produced has a line spectrum like that of an ordinary hot gas.” 9
“Inasmuch as the spatial motion component of the ultra high speed motion is in a second scalar dimension, it is perpendicular to the normal dimension of the reference system. This perpendicular line cannot rotate in a third dimension because the three-dimensional structure does not exist beyond the unit speed level. Thus the representation of the motion in the reference system is confined to a fixed line…”
“…this type of motion does not distinguish between the direction AB and the direction BA, since the only inherent property of the motion is a magnitude… any linear motion originating at a given point is therefore divided equally between two opposite directions by the operation of probability.”12 The matter at ultra high temperature, therefore, takes the shape of a sheaf of expanding rectilinear threads. We will call these unidirectional filaments ‘thredules.’ There is ample observational evidence of this slender, thread-like structure associated with the ultra high speeds like in the cases of the remnants of Type II supernovae,13 and quasar explosions.14
Before passing on to the next section, we must mention that since beyond the unit temperature the magnetic field is a concomitant phenomenon, we find that every thredule is invariably associated with magnetic flux lines running along its longitudinal axis.
In section 2 we have seen how the upper range temperatures generate magnetism. The basic motion constituting this magnetic charge is a two-dimensional space displacement of rotational vibration type, and so is the same as that of a magnetic charge in the material sector, in general. However, the fact that the thermally-generated magnetism we have been considering occurs in equivalent space, rather than the space of the conventional reference system, introduces a new element into the situation that produces some unfamiliar effects as viewed from that reference system.
It is usual to try to understand the action of magnetic charges with the help of the concept of “lines of force.” This is a legitimate practice inasmuch as force is a property of scalar motion, as Larson explains.15 Referring to Figure 1a, we see that the magnetic lines of force are in tension in the longitudinal direction, and have a positive pressure in the transverse direction; that is, they tend to contract along their length, and to diverge out in the perpendicular direction.
Because the direction, in the context of the conventional reference system, reverses whenever a motion crosses a unit boundary (even though it continues in the same natural direction), the behavior of the magnetic lines of force in the equivalent space would be as shown in Figure 1b. They tend to expand in the longitudinal direction, and to concentrate in the transverse direction. In other words, like poles attract and unlike poles repel (see Figures 2a and 2b). In view of this reversal of the apparent directions, we will give this phenomenon a new name, and call it co-magnetism.
We will now highlight some significant patterns of the field line arrangements that are derived from the nature of magnetism and co-magnetism respectively, as these will have a bearing on the explanation of the magnetic field structure of the sun.
Consider two pairs of parallel field lines, with the field directions as shown in Figure 3a. Let us refer to the field line coming out of the plane of the paper and represented by a plus sign as the “north line” and the one antiparallel to it, and represented by the minus sign, as the “south line.” As can be seen from the figure, in the case of normal magnetism, two parallel north (or south) lines repel each other, while north and south lines attract each other. If we now imagine a process that generates equal numbers of south and north lines, all of which remain parallel to each other, but are free to move in the lateral direction, the least energy configuration would be one in which there are no large-scale magnetic domains, as shown in Figure 4a.
Turning now to the case of co-magnetism, we find that two north (or south) lines attract each other, while north and south lines repel each other (Figure 3b). Suppose that in a co-magnetic process, equal numbers of north and south lines are generated in such a way that they are constrained to remain parallel to each other, but are free to migrate laterally. If initially the south and north lines are randomly distributed in space, lines of the same type tend to aggregate and form separate magnetic domains. At the same time, domains of opposite polarity tend to repel each other and move apart (see Figure 4b). If the total volume in which these domains exist is restricted, then the eventual result of the gradual merging of the domains of the same polarity would be the complete bifurcation into two domains of opposite polarity.
Summing up some important conclusions reached regarding the structure of matter at very high temperatures: