References

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  49. Ibid., p. 186.

  50. Ibid., p. 193.

  51. Ibid., p. 109.

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  80. Ibid., p. 333.

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  82. Ibid., p. 1263.

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  85. Ibid., p. 215.

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  110. Hartmann, William K., op. cit., p. 284.

  111. Gamow, George, op. cit., p. 94.

  112. Wyatt, Stanley P., op. cit., p. 568.

  113. Verschuur, Gerrit, op. cit., p. 102.

  114. Ibid., p. 105.

  115. News item, Nature, July 12, 1974.

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  118. Payne-Gaposchkin, Cecilia, ibid., p. 36.

  119. Oort, J. H., ibid., p. 189.

  120. Burnham, Robert, Jr., op. cit., p. 1546.

  121. Ibid., p. 347.

  122. Philip, A. G. D., Sky and Telescope, July 1978.

  123. Hartmann, William K., op. cit., p. 309.

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  129. Liller and Liller, Scientific American, Apr. 1963.

  130. Burnham, Robert, Jr., op. cit., p. 2120.

  131. Abell, G. O., Astrophysical Journal, Apr. 1966.

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  134. Smith and Aller, Astrophysical Journal, Mar. 1, 1971.

  135. Greenstein, J. L., Scientific American, Jan. 1959.

  136. Greenstein, J. L., McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia, p. 14-633.

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  138. Stothers, Richard, Astronomical Journal, Dec. 1966.

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  143. Shklovskii, I. S., op. cit., p. 198.

  144. Aller and Liller, op. cit., p. 483.

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  146. Ebbighausen, E. G., op. cit., p. 101.

  147. McLaughlin, Dean B., Stellar Atmospheres, J. L. Greenstein, editor, op. cit., p. 640.

  148. Ibid., p. 593.

  149. Kraft and Luyten, Astrophysical Journal, Oct. l, 1965.

  150. Joy, A. H., Stellar Atmospheres, J. L. Greenstein, editor, op. cit., p. 668.

  151. Burnham, Robert, Jr., op. cit., p. 225.

  152. Joy, A. H., op. cit., p. 666.

  153. Haro, Guillermo, Non-Stable Stars, edited by G. H. Herbig, Cambridge University Press, 1957, p. 26.

  154. Burnham, Robert, Jr., op. cit., p. 174.

  155. Ibid., p. 123.

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  157. Burnham, Robert, Jr., op. cit. p. 928.

  158. Ibid., p. 218.

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  160. Joy, A. H., op. cit., p. 672.

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  162. McLaughlin, Dean B., Stellar Atmospheres, op. cit., p. 647.

  163. Walker, Marshall, The Nature of Scientific Thought, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1963, p. 132.

  164. Davies, Paul, The Runaway Universe, Harper & Row, New York, 1978, p. 159.

  165. Jeans, James, op. cit., p. 279.

  166. Ibid., p. 281.

  167. Gorenstein and Tucker, Scientific American, Nov. 1978.

  168. Neugebauer and Becklin, Scientific American, Apr. 1973.

  169. Jastrow and Thompson, op. cit., p. 250.

  170. Branch, David, Astrophysical Journal, Sept. 15, 1981.

  171. Minkowski, R., Nebulae and Interstellar Matter, edited by Middlehurst and Aller, op. cit., p. 629.

  172. Shklovskii, I. S., op. cit., p. 297.

  173. Ibid., p. 226.

  174. Kowal, Charles T., Astronomical Journal, Dec. 1968.

  175. Poveda and Woltjer, Astronomical Journal, Mar. 1968.

  176. Shklovskii, I. S., op. cit., p. 257.

  177. Minkowski, R., op. cit., p. 652.

  178. Ibid., p. 658.

  179. Mitton, Simon, The Crab Nebula, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1978, p. 42.

  180. Ibid., p. 56.

  181. Shklovskii. I. S., op. cit., p. 270.

  182. Poveda and Woltjer, Astronomical Journal, Mar. 1968.

  183. Smith, F. G., Pulsars, Cambridge University Press, 1977, p. 9.

  184. Harwit, Martin, Cosmic Discovery, op. cit,. p. 243.

  185. Ibid., p. 327.

  186. Hoyle, Fred, From Stonehenge to Modern Cosmology, W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, 1972, p. 62.

  187. Shklovsky, I. S., Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Apr.-May 1980.

  188. Smith, F. G., op. cit., p. 220.

  189. Ibid., p. 169.

  190. News item, Sky and Telescope, Dec. 1979.

  191. Smith, F. G., op. cit., p. 229.

  192. Ibid., p. 228.

  193. Ibid., p. 9l.

  194. Ibid., p. 103.

  195. Manchester and Taylor, Pulsars, W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, 1977, p. 226.

  196. Smith, F. G., Nature, Dec. 5, 1970.

  197. Manchester and Taylor, op. cit., p. 15.

  198. Taylor and Manchester, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1977.

  199. Manchester and Taylor, op. cit., p. l8.

  200. Ibid., p. 6.

  201. Thome, Kip S., Scientific American, Dec. 1974.

  202. Ruderman, M., Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Feb. 15, 1980.

  203. Smith, F. G., Pulsars, op. cit., p. 171.

  204. Burbidge and Burbidge, Quasi-Stellar Objects, W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, 1967, p. 52.

  205. Mitton, Simon, Exploring the Galaxies, op. cit., p. 179.

  206. Bok and Bok, op. cit., p. 168.

  207. Shklovskii, I. S., Stars, op. cit., p. 256.

  208. Moore and Stockman, Astrophysical Journal, Jan. l, 1981.

  209. Mitton, Simon, Exploring the Galaxies, op. cit., p. 108.

  210. Ibid., p. 180.

  211. Mason and Cordova, Sky and Telescope, July 1982.

  212. Fabian, Andrew C., Earth and Extraterrestrial Sciences, Feb. 1973.

  213. Giacconi, R, quoted by Fabian, ibid.

  214. Fabian and Pringle, New Scientist, Feb. 7, 1974.

  215. Hartmann, William K., op. cit., p. 371.

  216. Kylafis, N. D., et al., Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Feb 15, 1980.

  217. Holt and McCray, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1982.

  218. Shklovskii, I. S., Stars, op. cit., p. 384.

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  220. Shklovskii, I. S., Stars, op. cit., p. 400.

  221. News Item, Nature, Jan. 26, 1973.

  222. Cocke, W. J., et al., Nature, Sept. 26, 1970.

  223. Radhakrishnan, V., et al., Nature, Feb. l, 1969.

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  225. Shklovskii, I. S., Stars, op. cit., p. 244

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  230. Verschuur, Gerrit, Starscapes, op. cit., p. 171.

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  274. Mitton, Simon, Exploring the Galaxies, op. cit., p. I 12.

  275. Hartmann, William K., op. cit., p. 290.

  276. Ibid., p. 374.

  277. Ibid., p. 375.

  278. Hoyle, Fred, Galaxies, Nuclei, and Quasars, Harper & Row, New York, 1965, p. 4.

  279. Rogstad and Ekers, Astrophysical Journal, Aug. 1969.

  280. Mitton, Simon, Exploring the Galaxies, op. cit., p. 107.

  281. Burbidge and Burbidge, Nature, Oct. 4, 1969.

  282. Sandage, Allan R., Scientific American, Nov. 1964.

  283. Harwit, Martin, Cosmic Discovery, op. cit., p. 145.

  284. Weedman, Daniel, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1977.

  285. Mitton, Simon, 1973 Yearbook of Astronomy.

  286. Maffei, Paolo, op. cit., p. 288.

  287. Mitton, Simon, Exploring the Galaxies, op. cit., p. 120.

  288. Clark, George W., Scientific American, Oct. 1977.

  289. Leventhal and MacCallum, Scientific American, July 1980.

  290. Harwit, Martin, Cosmic Discovery, op. cit., p. 146.

  291. Ibid., p. 147.

  292. Einstein, Albert, The Structure of Scientific Thought, edited by E. H. Madden, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1960, p. 82.

  293. Feynman, Richard, op. cit., p. 156.

  294. Ibid., p. 171.

  295. Shipman, H. L., Black Holes, op. cit., p. 19.

  296. Ibid., p. 16.

  297. Ibid.. p. 63.

  298. Ibid., p. 98.

  299. Ibid., p. 66.

  300. Burbidge, Geoffrey, Sky and Telescope, Sept. 1983.

  301. Davies, Paul, Science Digest, Sept. 1983.

  302. Dingle, Herbert, A Century of Science, Hutchinson’s Publications, London, 1951 , p. 315.

  303. Andrade, E. N. DaC., An Approach to Modern Physics, G. Bell & Sons, London, 1959, p. 134.

  304. Heisenberg, Werner, Philosophic Problems of Nuclear Science, Pantheon Books, New York, 1952, p. 55.

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  306. Feynman, Richard, op. cit., p. 129.

  307. Heisenberg, Werner, op. cit., p. 38.

  308. Bridgman, P. W., Reflections of a Physicist, Philosophical Library, New York, 1955, p. 186.

  309. Maffei, Paolo, Beyond the Moon, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1978, p. 301.

  310. News item, New Scientist, Oct. 17, 1968.

  311. Davies, Paul, The Runaway Universe, op. cit., p. 33.

  312. Larson, Dewey B., The Neglected Facts of Science, North Pacific Publishers, 1982, p. 58.

  313. Bondi, Hermann, Cosmology Now, op. cit., p. 11.

  314. Jastrow and Thompson, op. cit., p. 259.

  315. Ibid., p. 271.

  316. Bahcall, J. N., Astronomical Journal, May 1971.

  317. Lovell, Bemard, Cosmology Now, op. cit., p. 8.

  318. Alfven, H., Worlds-Antiworlds, W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, 1966, p. 100.

  319. Silk, Joseph, op. cit., p. 61.

  320. Sciama, Dennis, Cosmology Now, op. cit., p. 67.

  321. McCrea, W. H., ibid., p. 91.

  322. Shipman, H. L., Black Holes, op. cit., p. 256.

  323. Davies, Paul, The Edge of Infinity, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1981, p. 137.

  324. Spitzer, Lyman, Jr., Searching Between the Stars, Yale University Press, 1982, p. 5.

  325. See discussion in Verschuur, Starscapes, op. cit., p. 190.

  326. Calder, Nigel, The Violent Universe, The Viking Press, New York, 1969, p. 121.

  327. Rees, Martin, Cosmology Now, op. cit., p. 129.

  328. Kuhn, Thomas, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press, 1962, p. 67.

  329. Lovell, Bernard, Cosmology Now, op. cit., p. 7.

  330. Verschuur, Gerrit, The Invisible Universe, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1974, p. 139.

  331. Kellerman, K. 1., Physics Today, Oct. 1973.

  332. Feynman, Richard, op. cit., p. 160.

  333. de Vaucoleurs, G., Sky and Telescope, Aug. 1978.

  334. Shapiro, Irwin, Technology Review (MIT), Dec. 1975.

  335. Walker, Marshall, op. cit., p. 28.

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