2 Multi-Dimensional Motion


Multi-Dimensional Motion

In the preceding chapter it was pointed out that scalar motion unquestionably exists (since we can observe it), but has not previously been recognized by physical science (because it has not heretofore been subjected to the kind of a critical analysis that would distinguish it clearly from ordinary vectorial motion). The long overdue study and analysis has now been carried out, and the results thereof are being described in this volume. So far it has been pointed out that scalar motion, which, by definition, has a magnitude, also has an inherent scalar direction (inward or outward, in the context of a fixed reference system), that it acquires a reference point and a vectorial direction when it is physically coupled to a reference system, that the acquired direction and reference point are totally dependent on the nature of the coupling, that this vectorial direction is not necessarily constant, but may be distributed over two or three dimensions of space, and that the distributed scalar motion is accelerated.

The most significant addition to scientific knowledge included in the foregoing list is the existence of rotationally distributed scalar motion. In this present chapter we will encounter another important addition to our store of factual information, another hitherto unrecognized physical fact, the existence of scalar motion in more than one dimension. This finding takes us farther out into the previously unexplored area of physical science. The distributed scalar motions are unique, and have no vectorial counterparts, but the ones that have been discussed thus far are specifically coupled to the reference system, and occupy identifiable positions in that system. Now we need to recognize that there are other scalar motions that cannot be represented in the reference system.

The finding that much of the action of the universe takes place outside (that is, independent of) the reference system which most individuals are accustomed to regard as the container, or setting, for all physical action, will no doubt be distasteful to many persons. Of course, it would be simpler and easier for the human individual who is trying to understand the physical universe if that universe would conform to the kind of a reference system that he finds convenient. But we have to face the fact that it does not do so. This was clearly established long ago, and is not seriously contested today in scientific circles. The questions still at issue are the nature of, and the reasons for, the discrepancies between the true physical situation and the representation in the reference system. The present-day “official” school of physical theory has found these questions so difficult to answer that it has, in desperation, resorted to the drastic step of abandoning physical reality, so far as the basic physical entities are concerned. According to Heisenberg, one of the principal architects of the prevailing structure of theory, the basic entities of the universe are not “objectively real” at all; they are phantoms which can “only be symbolized by partial differential equations in an abstract multidimensional space.”15 P.W. Bridgman, another distinguished physicist, retreats still further into philosophical obscurity, in this statement:

The revolution that now confronts us arises from the recent discovery of new facts, the only interpretation of which is that our conviction that nature is understandable and subject to law arose from the narrowness of our horizons, and that if we sufficiently extend our range we shall find that nature is intrinsically and in its elements neither understandable nor subject to law.16

Clarification of the nature of scalar motion, and identification of a number of the hitherto unexplained basic physical phenomena as motions of this kind makes the retreat from reality unnecessary. The mere fact that certain phenomena cannot be accommodated within the kind of a reference system we have chosen to utilize does not mean that they are unreal “phantoms.” We cannot represent the whole of physical existence in terms of a reference system of limited scope, but by identifying the kinds of magnitudes that are not capable of representation in the system we can determine what additions or adjustments to the representation are required in order to arrive at an accurate description of the total physical situation.

This particular identification process is quite difficult, however, not because the process itself is particularly complicated, but because the reference system whose limitations we are trying to ascertain is the one to which our own physical activities conform, and to which, as a consequence, our thinking has been adjusted. In a sense, this undertaking is analogous to the proverbial task of lifting ourselves by our bootstraps. Even the simple concept of motion that is inherently scalar, and not merely a vectorial motion whose directional aspects are being disregarded, involves a conceptual reorientation of no small magnitude. Now we need to go a step farther and recognize that in a three-dimensional universe scalar motion is not limited to the one dimension that can be represented in the conventional spatial reference system. Two-dimensional or three-dimensional scalar motions are equally possible.

From a mathematical standpoint, an n-dimensional quantity is merely one that requires n magnitudes for a complete definition. As one dictionary explains, by way of illustration, “a2-b2-c is a term of five dimensions.” A scalar motion in one dimension is defined in terms of one magnitude; a scalar motion in three dimensions is defined in terms of three magnitudes. One of the three dimensions of scalar motion can be further divided dimensionally by the introduction of directions relative to a three-dimensional spatial reference system. This expedient resolves the one-dimensional scalar magnitude into three orthogonally related submagnitudes, which, together with the directions, constitute vectors. No more than one of the three scalar magnitudes that define a three-dimensional scalar motion can be expressed vectorially, because the resolution of such a magnitude into vectorial components can only be accomplished in the context of a reference system, the capacity of which is limited.

This conventional reference system is three-dimensional in space, but it is not capable of representing more than one dimension of motion. Each individual motion that is represented is characterized by a vector, and the resultant of any number of motions of an object is a one-dimensional motion defined by the vector sum. All three dimensions of the reference system are required for the representation of one-dimensional motion of this nature, and there is no way in which the system can indicate a change of position in a second dimension. This limitation of the capabilities of the reference system does not restrict its ability to represent vectorial motion, inasmuch as that motion is, by definition, motion relative to the reference system, and it is therefore inherently one-dimensional. But we now need to recognize that scalar motion can take place in two or three dimensions, and that only one of these dimensions of motion can be represented in the reference system.

The existence of motion in more than one dimension is totally foreign to current physical thought, in which the entire physical universe, aside from such things as Heisenberg’s “phantoms,” and the “virtual particles” and other ghostly denizens of the quantum theories, is presumed to be contained within three-dimensional space and clock time. But this merely emphasizes the fact that the conventional reference system is not capable of representing the entire universe. Multi-dimensional scalar motion is not an assumption or a theory. It is a necessary consequence of the existence of the scalar type of motion, together with the existence of three dimensions of the universe. Each dimension is available for scalar motion.

In order to distinguish the dimensions of scalar motion from the dimensions of space in which one dimension of motion can take place, we will use the term “scalar dimension” in a manner analogous to the use of the term “scalar direction.” Here, again, whatever semantic objections there may be to the terminology are more than offset by its convenience.

If the vector sum of all vectorial motions (measured as velocities) of an object is XA, this sum is represented by a line XA in the reference system. In this case XA is a complete representation of the motion. The representation of the scalar motion of some object in the dimension of the reference system may also be XA, but in this case XA is not necessarily a complete representation of the motion. For example, if the scalar motion is two-dimensional, the object that is moving from X toward A is also moving coincidentally in a scalar dimension XB perpendicular to XA. The motion XB is totally independent of XA, and cannot be combined with it to produce a resultant capable of representation in the reference system, as there is no way of combining independent scalar motions. They can be added. The scalar sum XA+ XB is a significant quantity for some purposes, but the motion XB does not enter into any of the physical phenomena that are related to position in the coordinate system.

The question naturally arises: If motion in a second or third scalar dimension has no effect that can be observed in terms of the spatial reference system, how do we know that such motion exists? For an answer it needs to be recognized that scalar speed is a physical magnitude. Under some circumstances, and within certain limits, this magnitude can be represented as a vector in a spatial coordinate system, as indicated in the previous pages. Beyond the scope of this representation it is still a physical magnitude, and it enters into any measurement of such magnitudes that does not depend on coordinate differences.

An example that will enter into some of the discussion that follows is the Doppler shift. This modification of the frequency of emitted radiation is a direct measurement of the speed of the emitting object, relative to the location of observation, and has no relation to the coordinates of the reference system. It therefore measures the total effective speed in the dimension of the reference system, irrespective of whether or not that total includes components in that same dimension that are not capable of representation in the reference system. The nature of such components will be considered later.

With the benefit of the foregoing information about the dimensions of scalar motion, we are now in a position to complete our identification of the principal distributed scalar motions that are responsible for the existence of the “fundamental forces.” As noted earlier, it is quite evident that the characteristics of distributed scalar motion are identical with the observed characteristics of gravitation. In current thought, the gravitational motion is believed to be produced by an autonomous gravitational force of unknown origin. Einstein attributed it to a deformation of space due to the presence of mass, and his theory of gravitation, the general theory of relativity, is part of the dogma of modern physics. However, the extent to which it is actually accepted as a real explanation is indicated by the fact that practically every book or article about gravitation currently being published refers to it, either in the title or in the opening paragraphs, as a “mystery,” a “puzzle,” or an “enigma.” As described by Dean E. Wooldridge, “It is still as mysterious and inexplicable as it ever was.”17 R. H. Dicke, one of the leading investigators in this field, sums up the situation in this manner:

In any case, it appears clear that there is little reason for complacency regarding gravitation. It may well be the most fundamental and least understood of the interactions.18

The problem that has hitherto baffled those who have attempted to explain gravitation is that while it appears to be a force, its properties are totally unlike those of any ordinary force. So far as can be determined from observation, it acts instantaneously, without an intervening medium, and in such a manner that it cannot be screened off or modified in any way. These behavior characteristics are so difficult to explain on the basis of accepted physical theory that the theorists have taken the unprecedented step of repudiating the observations. Inasmuch as it has not been found possible to construct a theory that would fit the observations, these theorists have decreed that the observations must be modified to fit the theory. Accordingly, since they cannot explain the observed set of properties, they have constructed a fictitious set of properties that they can explain, and have substituted these fictitious properties for the observed properties. Notwithstanding all of the empirical evidence to the contrary, the current contention of the physicists is that the gravitational effect must be transmitted at a finite speed through a medium, or something with the properties of a medium.

There is no lack of recognition of the absurdity of the existing situation. The observers keep calling attention to the discrepancy between what they find and the assumptions on which current theory is based, as in this plaintive comment from a news item:

When it (the distance) is astronomical, the difficulty arises that the intermediaries need a measurable time to cross, while the forces in fact seem to appear instantaneously.19

The theorists admit that they have no factual support for their conclusions. As Max von Laue explains,

Nowadays we are also convinced that gravitation progresses with the speed of light. This conviction, however, does not stem from a new experiment or a new observation, it is a result solely of the theory of relativity.20

Meanwhile, voices are raised warning against this kind of defiance of the results of observation. This statement by G. deVaucoleurs is typical:

But if nature refuses to cooperate, or for a time remains silent, there is a serious danger that the constant repetition of what is in truth merely a set of a priori assumptions (however rational, plausible, or otherwise commendable) will in time become accepted dogma that the unwary may uncritically accept as an established fact or as an unescapable logical requirement.21

But all this falls mostly on deaf ears. When the scientific community fails to recognize the physical facts, such as the existence of distributed scalar motion, that point the way to correct explanations of certain phenomena, there is always a pressure on the theorists to produce some kind of an explanation. The inevitable result is the construction of erroneous theories, particularly at a time when the allowable latitude for the free use of ad hoc assumptions and other tactics for evading contradictions is as wide as it is today. As R. B. Lindsay describes the situation:

The clever physicist will always reserve the right to invent in arbitrary fashion the constructs he deems likely to succeed in the theoretical explanation of experience, even if this leads to rather bizarre devices for identifying these constructs with observational data.22

Once an erroneous theory is constructed with the aid of these “bizarre devices,” and achieves general acceptance because “there is no alternative,” it becomes part of the dogma of the scientific profession, and is defended against all attacks by all means available, the most effective of which is an ad hoc modification of the theory to meet whatever problem it encounters. As Einstein conceded,

It is often, perhaps even always, possible to adhere to a general theoretical foundation by securing the adaptation of the theory to the facts by means of artificial additional assumptions.23

In order to make these artificial assumptions plausible, it is often necessary to push some of the observed facts into the background where they can be ignored. This work is concerned primarily with previously unrecognized physical facts and their necessary consequences. There are, however, many other significant items of a factual nature that are known, but are disregarded, in part or in their entirety, because they conflict with some aspects of current physical thought. The term “neglected facts” was therefore used in the title of this volume in order to include those that are disregarded, as well as those that have not previously been identified. The observed properties of gravitation are in the disregarded category, although they are more than disregarded; they are totally repudiated.

If there ever was a legitimate excuse for this kind of open defiance of the results of observation, which is very doubtful, it has now been removed by the clarification of the nature of scalar motion, since it is evident that the properties of rotationally distributed scalar motion are identical with the observed properties of gravitation, those unique properties that have baffled the investigators who have tried to deal with gravitation as an autonomous force. According to Feynman,

Newton…was satisfied to find what gravity did without getting into the machinery of it. No one has since given any machinery.24

Now we have the machinery. The key to an understanding of gravitation is a recognition that each gravitating object is pursuing its own course, independently of all others. A distributed scalar motion of such an object in the inward scalar direction is decreasing the magnitude of the distance between this object and every other object in the reference system. Inasmuch as this decrease is a result of the motion of the object itself, not of any interaction between objects, the decrease is instantaneous, and requires no medium. The reason for the observed inability to interpose any kind of a screen between gravitating objects is likewise evident.

These findings as to the nature of gravitation enable us to clarify the relation between gravitation and inertia, a subject about which there has been considerable confusion. The distributed scalar motion that we call gravitation has the same general properties as any other motion. The ones with which we are now concerned are a number of units (mass, m), a speed of each unit (v), a total quantity of motion ( momentum, mv), an acceleration of each unit (dv/dt, or a), and a total quantity of acceleration (force, ma). Like any other distributed scalar motion, gravitation also has some special characteristics resulting from its scalar nature and its spatial distribution. One of these is that the magnitude of all of these properties, except the number of units involved, depends on the distance from the reference point. A related property is that because of the geometry of the reference system, the motion is accelerated. Both of these special characteristics have already been discussed.

Now we will want to take note of another unique property of distributed scalar motion. Inasmuch as an object with such a motion is arbitrarily assigned a speed of zero relative to the reference system by taking its location as a reference point for its scalar motion, it is possible to produce a compound motion, a motion of the distributed scalar motion, by moving the reference object. I n order to generate this motion, mv, a quantity of acceleration (or force), ma, must be applied. The mass appears in this process as a resistance to acceleration; that is, for a given applied force, the greater the mass the less the acceleration, on the individual unit basis. In gravitation, on the other hand, the mass appears to produce acceleration. It thus seemed to the early investigators in this area that there are two different quantities involved, an inertial mass and a gravitational mass. Very accurate measurements have demonstrated that the magnitudes of these two types of mass are identical. This naturally raised the question, Why? As reported by Gerholm:

This cannot be a coincidence! There must be some reason for the agreement. But within the framework of classical physics there is no explanation. When attention was directed to the problem, it seemed like a complete mystery.25

The “mystery” is simply a result of dealing with force on a basis that is inconsistent with its definition as a property of motion. If it is recognized that the physical processes with which we deal are relations between motions, and that what we are measuring are quantities of motion transferred from one condition to another, it is evident that the difference between output (as in gravitational action) and input (as in overcoming inertia) is in the nature of the process, not in the nature of the entities (motion and its properties) that are involved. This is well illustrated in cases where the same motion plays both roles. In a steam operated air compressor, for instance, the travel of the piston is the output of the first process, and the input of the second.

Einstein took a step forward in this area with his general theory of relativity. He did not quite bring himself to the point of recognizing that gravitation is a motion, but he formulated a principle of equivalence, in which he postulated (in the absence of any available means whereby he could draw the conclusion from established premises) that gravitation is equivalent to an accelerated frame of reference. This was a significant advance in understanding, and it enabled making some predictions of deviations from previous theory that have been verified, at least approximately, and have been impressive enough to secure general acceptance of the theory by the scientific community.

Notwithstanding its current status as the “official” gravitational theory, there is considerable dissatisfaction with it, particularly among the leading investigators in the gravitational area. Dicke’s characterization of gravitation, in the statement quoted earlier, as the “least understood of the interactions” is, by implication, an adverse judgment on the adequacy of the theory that is supposed to explain this phenomenon. Peter G. Bergmann observes that “lt appears as if general relativity contained within itself the seeds of its own conceptual destruction, because we can construct `preferred’ coordinate systems.”26 Bryce DeWitt is more blunt. “Asa fundamental physical theory general relativity is a failure.”27 he says.

The finding that gravitation is a distributed scalar motion explains why general relativity has not been able to satisfy the experts. While gravitation is accelerated, it is accelerated in a geometric manner quite different from that of an “accelerated frame of reference.” Einstein’s assumption of an equivalence between the two therefore forced him to introduce a geometrical distortion in order to compensate for the partial error in the equivalence assumption. The arguments for so doing are usually difficult to follow because of the elaborate mathematical form in which they are normally presented, but a more readily understandable summary by Gerholm reads as follows:

If acceleration and gravitation are equivalent, we must apparently also be able to imagine an acceleration field, a field formed by inertial forces. lt is easy to realize that no matter how we try, we will never be able to get such a field to have the same shape as the gravitational field around the earth and other celestial bodies . . If we want to save the equivalence principle…if we want to retain the identity between gravitational and inertial mass, then we are forced to give up Euclidean geometry! Only be accepting a non-Euclidean metric will we be able to achieve a complete equivalence between the inertial field and the gravitational field. This is the price we must pay.28

An analysis of this statement in the light of the findings described in the preceding pages shows what is wrong with the current thought on the subject. Einstein’s forward step in recognizing gravitation as the equivalent of an accelerated motion did not take him far enough to give him a clear picture of the situation. Before that clarification could be accomplished it was necessary to understand that gravitation is not only equivalent to an accelerated motion; it is an accelerated motion, but it is a motion of a special kind: a distributed scalar motion. The force aspect of such a motion is likewise directionally distributed: it is a force field. Accelerated vectorial motion of the gravitating object is not directionally distributed. One of the properties of such a motion is a quantity of acceleration, or force, but without the distribution in direction there is no force field. The notion, expressed in the foregoing quotation, that there is an inertial force field that has to be reconciled with the gravitational field by resort to non-Euclidean geometry is totally unfounded. The mass is the same in both cases, and the total force is the same, but the directional characteristics of the two types of motion are altogether different.

Just how much modification of general relativity will be required when the accelerated frame of reference is replaced by the correct distributed scalar motion is a question that is outside the scope of this present work. However, some points are quite clear. Those conclusions that result directly from the concept of gravitation as an accelerated motion (or the equivalent thereof), such as the gravitational redshift, will not be affected. Others, such as the advance of the perihelion of Mercury, will be seen in a somewhat different light. There will be a return to Euclidean geometry, and no doubt, a corresponding simplification of the mathematics. The basic revision of Einstein’s thought that will be required, however, results from the positive identification of gravitation as an inherent property of matter.

This was once the accepted explanation. Lovell reports, that “the idea of gravity as an intrinsic property of matter was gradually accepted and remained unchallenged until the publication of Einstein’s general theory of relativity in 1916.”29 Einstein replaced this concept with his version of Mach’s Principle, a hypothesis which asserts that “the inertial properties of matter on a small scale are determined by the behavior of matter on a cosmic scale.”30 This idea is simple enough in itself, but as Dennis Sciama explains:

To translate these ideas into complete mathematical form turns out to be a tricky business…The problem is technically difficult because Einstein’s equations are non-linear. This means that the influence of many stars is not the simple sum of the influence of each one taken separately. It is, therefore, difficult to analyse the gravitational field of the universe in sufficient detail.31

Sciama reports that the uncertainties in this situation have occasioned many differences of opinion. There are, he says, three distinct schools of thought as to the direction that should be taken in further study. All of these ideas are now invalidated by the identification of gravitation as a distributed scalar motion. This identity, now a definitely established physical fact, carries with it the identity of gravitational and inertial mass, and invalidates Mach’s Principle.

As noted earlier, identification of gravitation as a distributed scalar motion does not answer the basic question, the question as to its origin. This answer cannot be obtained from what we have learned thus far about scalar motion. Nor can this new information account for all of the details of the gravitational phenomenon. But the clarification of the nature of the gravitational effect is a significant accomplishment, and it opens the door to further advances. Such advances have already been made by means of investigations along theoretical lines, and are reported elsewhere. They will not be discussed here, as this volume is being limited to the findings with respect to scalar motion, and their direct consequences, items that are independent of the changes in basic physical concepts that are involved in the theoretical development.

When the status of gravitation as a distributed scalar motion is recognized, it is only one more step to a realization that the presumably autonomous electric and magnetic forces are also properties of distributed scalar motions. “No one,” says Feynman, “has ever succeeded in making electricity and gravity different aspects of the same thing.”32 This statement is now outdated. Like gravitation, the electric charge, the source of the electric force, is a motion. This finding will no doubt come as a surprise to most scientists, and there may be a tendency to regard it as a drastic revision of current scientific thought. But current science has nothing at all to say on the subject. The charge is simply accepted as a given feature of the universe, an “unanalyzable,” as Bridgman called it. We are told that it makes no sense to ask what the charge is. Andrade elaborates on this point in the statement quoted in part in Chapter 1:

The question, “What is electricity’?”—so often asked—is… meaningless… Electricity is one of the fundamental conceptions of physics; it is absurd to expect to be told that it is a kind of a liquid, or a known kind of force, when we explain the properties of liquids in terms of electricity, and electric force is perhaps the fundamental conception of modern physics.4

This statement, which purports to explain why the question is unanswerable, actually explains why the physicists are unable to answer it. They are putting the cart before the horse. By ignoring their own definition of force, and elevating electric force to the status of a “fundamental conception” they are closing the door on any recognition of the antecedents of that force.

Those who concede any meaning at all to the question as to the nature of electric phenomena generally consign such questions to the metaphysical realm, as in this statement by F. N. H. Robinson:

The question “What is electricity?” like the question “What is matter?” really lies outside the realm of physics and belongs to that of metaphysics.33

This line of demarcation between the physical and the metaphysical that is drawn in current thought is actually a boundary between that which is believed to be understood and that which is not understood. A force originates in some way from an electric charge. Force is a phenomenon with which the physicists consider themselves reasonably familiar. Charge is something that they have never been able to bring within their field of comprehension. Mass, the property of matter that determines the magnitude of the gravitational force, is no better understood. Magnetism is explained as being due to the motion of charges, but as long as the charges remain unexplained, the addition of movement does not represent much of an advance in understanding. The physicists have therefore taken force, the phenomenon that they believe they do understand, as the basic physical reality.

As pointed out in Chapter 1, this promotion of force to the status of an autonomous basic physical entity is self contradictory, since force is defined in a way that makes it a property of a motion, not an independent entity. The autonomous force concept has survived only because no satisfactory alternative has heretofore been available, and without something to take its place, the physicists have been unwilling to subject it to the kind of a critical examination that strict adherence to scientific procedure would require.

Recognition of the existence of distributed scalar motion has now clarified the situation. The “fundamental forces” are the force aspects of distributed scalar motions. “Charge” and “mass” are merely names for these previously unrecognized motions. There is no need to resort to metaphysics to account for their existence.

Like the gravitational motion, the electric and magnetic motions are distributed over the three spatial dimensions of the reference system, and they have some of the same general characteristics. But there are also some significant differences. One of these is that the electric force is vastly more powerful than gravitation. Science writers are fond of pointing out that gravitation would be a relatively inconsequential feature of the universe if it were not for the immense size of so many of the objects from which it originates: stars, planets, galaxies, etc.

The finding that scalar motion can take place in three scalar dimensions, only one of which is capable of representation in the spatial reference system, now supplies an explanation of this difference in magnitude. We can logically conclude that gravitation, which is clearly the basic type of distributed scalar motion, applying to all material objects under all conditions, is the motion that takes place in all three scalar dimensions. The difference in the magnitudes of the motions, as observed in the reference system, can then be readily accounted for if we identify the electric motion as being limited to one scalar dimension. On this basis, the full magnitude of the electric motion (and force) is effective in observable physical phenomena, whereas only one dimension of the three- (scalar) dimensional gravitational motion (and force) is similarly effective.

A logical corollary of the foregoing is the existence of a two (scalar) dimensional motion (and force) of the same nature, with a magnitude intermediate between that of gravitation and that of the electric motion. Magnetism is a phenomenon that clearly meets this specification. Here one dimension of motion is observable in the reference system, and one is unobservable. These comments apply only to what is known as “permanent magnetism” and to the phenomena of “magnetostatics.” Electromagnetism is a phenomenon of a different nature that is outside the scope of this present work.

The quantitative relations are in general agreement with the foregoing qualitative observations. The numerical relation between space and time in one dimension, as indicated by the speed of light (the significance of which we will discuss later), is 3×1010 in terms of conventional measurement units (cgs system). According to the foregoing explanation, it is (3×1010)2 in magnetism. The normal relation between electric and magnetic quantities should therefore be 3×1010, which agrees with the observed value. The relation between the electric and gravitational motion is affected by some differences in the nature of the motion distribution that will be examined in Chapter 3, but the ratio of electric to gravitational force is substantially greater than the electric/ magnetic ratio, as the dimensional difference requires.

This identification cf electric and magnetic forces as the force aspects of distributed scalar motions conflicts in some important respects with currently accepted ideas. Inasmuch as the current ideas are products of the prevailing theory of electricity and magnetism, there will no doubt be a tendency to take it for granted that the new conclusions reached herein are products of some different theory. This is not correct. The identification is purely factual. We define certain classes of entities and determine their properties from observation. When we then observe entities that have these properties, and no others that are inconsistent with them, we identify these observed entities as members of the defined classes. This is a purely objective and factual process. The results thereof have the same standing as any other items of factual knowledge.

It follows that those elements of the currently prevailing theory that arrive at different conclusions are definitely in error, in whole or in part. This is not a matter of opinion or judgment. When one tenable theory conflicts with another, a decision as to which is correct, or more nearly correct, generally has to depend, to a considerable degree, on judgment as to the weight to be accorded to each of the various items of evidence. But when a theory conflicts with definitely established facts, it is no longer tenable, and it must give way.

Once the existence of these distributed scalar motions is recognized, it is immediately evident that the basic error in current theory is the assumption that electric, magnetic, and gravitational effects are propagated at a finite speed through a medium, or something with the properties of a medium. As noted earlier, the observed characteristics of gravitation are in direct conflict with this assumption, and the physicists can maintain their theoretical position only by repudiating the observations. The situation with respect to the electric and magnetic forces is not as clear-cut, as it is confused by the existence of other related phenomena that are not distinguished, or not clearly distinguished, from the effects of these forces in current thought. The most significant contributor to the existing confusion is electromagnetic radiation.

No detailed discussion of this radiation will be included in this present volume, as it does not enter into the matters here being discussed. However, since current theory is based on the assumption that radiation is involved in these matters, it will be advisable to point out just what is wrong with this hypothesis. Radiation is an energy transmission process. Photons leave the radiation source, travel through space, and eventually reach a material atom or aggregate by which they are absorbed. Each photon carries a specific amount of energy. The energy of the source is decreased by this amount when the photon is emitted, and the energy of the absorber is increased by this amount when the photon is absorbed. At either end of the path the radiant energy is readily interchangeable with any other type of energy. The energy of the impinging photon may, for instance, be converted into kinetic energy (heat), or into electric energy (the photoelectric effect), or into chemical energy (photo-chemical action). Similarly, any of these other types of energy that may exist at the point of emission of the radiation may be converted into radiation by appropriate processes. This radiant energy transmission process is entirely independent of the distance between the emitter and the absorber, aside from the effect of the distance on the amount of time required for the travel.

The action of a distributed scalar motion is a totally different kind of a process. Gravitation, for instance, instead of being independent of the distance, is totally dependent on the distance; that is, the separation between the objects under consideration. Unless this distance is altered, there is no change at all in the energy of either object. The force persists, but there is no energy effect. Where one object does increase its kinetic energy by reason of a decrease in the distance, as in the case of an object falling toward the earth, this energy increment is not acquired at the expense of the earth; it is derived from the energy of position (the potential energy) of the moving object itself.

Furthermore, gravitational energy is not interchangeable with other forms of energy. At any specific location with respect to other masses, a mass unit possesses a definite amount of gravitational (potential) energy, and it is impossible to increase or decrease this energy content by conversion from or to other forms of energy. It is true that a change of location results in a release or absorption of energy, but the gravitational energy that a mass possesses at point A cannot be converted to any other type of energy at point A, nor can the gravitational energy at A be transferred unchanged to any other point B (except along equipotential lines). The only energy that makes its appearance in any other form at point B is that portion of the gravitational energy which the mass possessed at point A, but can no longer retain at point B: a fixed amount determined entirely by the difference in location.

These facts are obvious to anyone who wants to see them, but as Harlow Shapley once remarked in a comment about the situation in the cosmological field, facts have been the number one enemy of theories.34 After the theorists have found themselves frustrated time and time again over a long period of years they become desperate, and begin constructing their theories in defiance of the facts. This is what has happened in the areas that we are now examining. Thus it is not surprising that these current theories are in conflict with the new facts disclosed by the scalar motion investigation. They were already in conflict with many old facts that have long been part of the main body of scientific knowledge. In the terminology of this work, these are disregarded facts.