Zero, One, Infinity...

Prof. KVK Nehru's Powerpoint presentation on Zero, One, Infinity... an overview of concepts in the Reciprocal System.


Some Thoughts on Spin

Detailed study of the characteristics of the so-called nucleus of the atom has not been carried out by Larson. Therefore we have undertaken this much needed investigation and been reporting our results.[1-3]

It has been our experience that such investigation hardly ever proceeds in a strictly serial manner. Rather, it is more akin to the process of fitting the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle together. Nascent understanding gradually builds up and evolves from various seemingly diverse starting points, the concepts on each line of thinking modifying the ones on other lines, and in turn themselves getting modified by the latter. Eventually a nexus of coherent structure ensues. The thoughts presented in this article too constitute such a preliminary group of ideas that might serve to crystallize some of the earlier concepts enunciated on the topic of the so-called atomic nucleus.

The Lifetime of the Neutron

Theoretical findings of the Reciprocal System indicate that the neutron exists in two forms: as the massless type, M ½-½-0, and as the compound type, M 1-1-(1) == C (½)-(½)-1. As matters now stand, while the massless neutron is unobserved, the compound neutron is identified as the observed neutron. Larson1 shows how the mass of the compound neutron, calculated from the Reciprocal System, agrees with the observed value. This paper attempts to arrive at the compound neutron’s lifetime on the basis of the same theoretical system and thus add a further element of validation to the identification of the compound neutron.

The Interaction of Alpha Particles and Gold Atoms: A New Explanation of Rutherford Scattering


Nearly all present-day physicists are convinced of the truth of the assertion in the following quotation from Weidner and Sells’ Elementary Modern Physics(1):

It was by the alpha particle scattering experiments, suggested by Rutherford, that the existence of atomic nuclei was established.

The Wave Mechanics in the Light of the Reciprocal System

One of the large areas to which the Reciprocal System is yet to be applied in detail is spectroscopy. The need is all the more urgent as vast wealth of empirical data is available here in great detail and a general theory must explain all the aspects. To be sure, this was one of the earlier areas which Larson1 explored. But he soon found out, he writes, that there were complications too many and too involved that he decided to postpone the investigation until more basic ground was developed by studying other areas.

‘Quantum Mechanics’ as the Mechanics of the Time Region

Reciprocity, Volume XXIV, Number 1, Spring 1995, p. 1–9; Revised Feb. 1998

The preliminary results of a critical study of the Wave Mechanics carried out in the light of the knowledge of the Reciprocal System of theory have been reported earlier.1 Some of its important findings are as follows. While the Wave Mechanics has been very successful mathematically, it contains some fundamental errors. The principal stumbling block has been the ignorance of the existence of the Time Region and its peculiar characteristics. The crucial points that need to be recognized are that the wave associated with a moving particle, in a system of atomic dimensions, exists in the equivalent space of the Time Region: and that switching from the particle view to the wave view is equal in significance to shifting from the standpoint of the three-dimensional spatial reference frame to that of the three-dimensional temporal reference frame that is germane to the Time Region. To imagine that even gross objects have a wave associated with them is a mistake: the question of the wave does not arise unless the phenomena concerned enter the Time Region.

Theoretical Evaluation of Planck's Constant

The analysis of physical quantities into their space-time components, made possible by the application of the Reciprocal System, throws fresh illumination on the nature and significance of these quantities. Larson demonstrates that the result of applying the discrete unit postulate to the dimensions of physical quantities results in the principle that the dimensions of the numerator of the space-time expression of any real physical quantity cannot be greater than those of the denominator.


Superconductivity: A Time Region Phenomenon

Reciprocity XIX #3, Autumn, 1990

1. Introduction

The chief characteristic of superconductivity is the complete absence of the electrical resistance. As the temperature is decreased, the change from the normal to the superconducting state takes place abruptly at a critical temperature Tc. Though the phenomenon was discovered as far back as 1911, it resisted all theoretical understanding and not until 1957 was the famous BCS theory (Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer) propounded. According to this theory, superconductivity occurs when the repulsive interaction between two electrons is overcome by an attractive one, resulting from a mechanism which gives rise to electron pairs since then known to be called the “Cooper Pairs”—that behaved like bosons and moved without resistance.

‘Non-Locality’ in the Reciprocal System

Reciprocity XXVI #1, Spring, 1997

Though quantum theory is phenomenologically successful, it fails to throw any light on the nature of the underlying physical reality. The Reciprocal System, true to its claim of a unified and general theory, not only covers the ground of the quantum theory, but also provides insight into the reality, basing on the new paradigm of motion as the sole constituent of the physical universe. Its most important finding is the existence of different domains of physical action, in which the rules of the game apparently differ. Larson resolves all the difficulties the conventional theory is facing, by the knowledge of the characteristics of these domains.

The Law of Conservation of Direction


Some students of the Reciprocal System (RS) have been disputing the explanation of the intrinsic structure of the photons, given by Larson, the originator of the RS. No amount of discussion, so far, seemed to throw additional light in overcoming the logical objections raised. An examination of the situation undertaken by the present investigator revealed that a crucial fact of fundamental nature is being missed hitherto, both by the originator and the other students.


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