Astronomy

Quasars--Three Years Later

Three years have now passed since publication of the book Quasars and Pulsars in which a detailed explanation of the existence and properties of the quasars was derived by pure reasoning from the properties of space and time as postulated in what is known as the Reciprocal System of physical theory. In the meantime further observations of these objects have been made, hypotheses and conjectures of all sorts and descriptions have been proposed, tested and discarded, and the astronomers and others concerned have had additional time to assess the significance of the various bits of knowledge that have been accumulated, and to weigh the attempts at explanation of the phenomena more carefully. It would appear, therefore, that it is now in order to take a look at the question as to how well the theory outlined in Quasars and Pulsars has been able to cope with the new information developed during the three year period, and where this theory now stands in comparison with the more conventional views of the subject matter.

Here is the Proof: Association of Quasars with Other Astronomical Objects

Here in this diagram, reproduced from D. B. Larson’s book Quasars and Pulsars, is the evidence that confirms the reality of Halton Arp’s “associations” of quasars with other astronomical objects, and thereby not only provides a conclusive answer to the hotly debated question as to where the quasars are located, but also opens the door to a solution of the whole “quasar mystery”.

A New Theory of Gravitation

In a recent publication1, the author formulated two fundamental postulates as to the nature of space and time and showed that the necessary consequences of these postulates are sufficient in themselves to define a complete theoretical universe, which is identical with the observed physical universe wherever comparisons can be made. The development of these consequences of the postulates frequently leads to entirely new concepts of familiar physical phenomena and in many instances these new concepts are of sufficient interest and importance to justify giving them separate consideration independently of the general theory by means of which they were originally derived. For this purpose we need only to treat the primary deductions from the original postulates as assumptions.

Precession of the Planetary Perihelia Due to Co-ordinate Time

1. Introduction

The first of the two Fundamental Postulates of the Reciprocal System from which Larson derives every aspect of the physical universe is:

“The physical universe is composed entirely of one component, motion, existing in three dimensions, in discrete units, and with two reciprocal aspects, space and time.”1

The primary implication of the Postulate is that the properties of either space or time are the properties of both space and time, except that space and time are reciprocally related as motion. This means, inter alia, that space is a progression like time is, and that time is three-dimensional. While the space progression is observable as the recession of distance galaxies, the three-dimensionality of time is not so directly apparent.

Astronomical X-Ray Sources

Recent advances in techniques and equipment for x-ray observation of astronomical objects have resulted in the accumulation of enough information to enable checking the general nature of the observational results against the theoretical picture derived from development of the consequences of the postulates of the Reciprocal System of physical theory, the RS theory, we will call it for convenience. X-rays can, of course, be produced in relatively small quantities by a number of different processes, but the RS theoretical development indicates that the source of the very strong radiation in this frequency range that is generated in astronomical objects is radioactivity from matter which has reverted to speeds below unity (the speed of light) after having remained at a higher speed long enough to attain isotopic stability at the ultra-high speed.

Perhaps You Are Not Interested In Quasars? (Promotion for "Quasars & Pulsars")

But as a scientist, or a philosopher, you are vitally concerned with the foundations of science, and the task of providing an explanation of the quasars is the great test that the basic laws and theories of physical science are today being called upon to meet: a test in which they are failing badly. Indeed, they are so helpless in the face of this challenge that prominent astronomers are finding it necessary to call for a “radical revision” of existing ideas. Under these circumstances it is highly significant that there is an available system of physical theory that can meet this crucial test; one which can furnish a comprehensive and consistent explanation of the quasars and associated phenomena—galactic explosions, pulsars, white dwarf stars, the recession of the galaxies, and so on.

The Search for the Ultimate

From the very beginning of the kind of disciplined thinking about the physical world that we now call science, one of the major objectives has been to identify its basic constituent, or constituents; to answer the question, What is the world made of? The earliest theories of which we have detailed knowledge, those developed by the Ionians in the years from about 600 to about 400 B.C., and by the Chinese around the same time, were of two general types. One group of philosophers, reasoning from an assumption as to the unity of nature, argued for a single constituent. Water was the usual choice, although there was some support for air. Another group contended that the great multiplicity of physical forms required the existence of a number of basic constituents. The most popular choice among the early investigators in the West was a four-element universe, constructed of earth, water, air, and fire, an identification that achieved a kind of an official status when it was accepted by Aristotle. The Chinese recognized five basic elements, omitting air and adding metal and wood.

A Star is Just a Big Lump of Matter (Promotion for "Universe of Motion")

Consequently, all of the features and properties of stars and their aggregates (clusters and galaxies) can be derived from physical laws and principles, independently of astronomical observations, providing—and here’s the catch—providing that a complete and consistent system of these physical laws and principles is available. Present-day physical science does not have such a system. As described by Richard Feynman, the laws of physics currently recognized by the scientific community are “a multitude of different parts and pieces that do not fit together very well”.

Articles:

The Mechanism of the Universe

Principal Address to the First Annual NSA Conference
Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 20, 1976

The human race, in its modern form, has been observing the universe from the surface of this planet for something like 50,000 years, perhaps as much as 100,000. But only within the last three or four thousand years has it had the capacity to analyze these observations and arrive at conclusions as to their significance. Yet on the basis of this extremely limited experience we somehow feel that we are competent to investigate events which, if they happened at all, happened ten or twenty billion years ago, and other events which, if they are ever going to happen, will not happen for an equally long time into the future.

Articles:

Glimpses Into the Structure of the Sun, Part II: The Solar Interior and the Sunspots

In Part I of this paper, we have endeavored to develop some important properties of matter at very high temperatures—those that prevail in the stellar interiors. Utilizing the principles developed there, we will now attempt to deduce the internal structure of the sun. For ease of reference, the section numbers, the figure numbers, and the reference numbers are all continued from Part I.

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